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For many ancient authors, the gilded coffered ceiling was the ultimate symbol of conspicuous consumption in the Roman home. Coffered ceilings were a standard feature of sumptuous public buildings across the Mediterranean, but their importation to the elite Roman domus and villa triggered anxiety about whether such grandeur was appropriate for a private setting. In this paper I examine the textual and visual evidence to argue that there is an additional element to this anxiety that has not yet been fully appreciated. For some critics, such ceilings were not only a waste of decorative effort but also an inadequate replacement for what a well-educated Roman should have been examining: the sky itself, and its celestial features.

The notion that the ceiling was a metaphorical sky was conventional in ancient Rome, and indeed constituted a broader Mediterranean phenomenon, with precedents in ancient Egyptian and Greek decoration. Domed and vaulted ceilings in particular could evoke the curvature of the heavens, but, as many scholars have noted, flat coffered ceilings could also conjure the night sky. Gilded ceilings might allude to the glow of celestial bodies (Pliny the Elder tells us that gold appealed to many because it had the color of the stars), and coffered ceilings frequently had stars affixed to the middle of each coffer. The association is common enough that both Statius and Manilius reverse the metaphor, describing the sky itself as coffered.

The conflation of coffered ceiling and sky reveals one aspect of the moralizing discourse that has not drawn sufficient attention in the scholarship: the frequency with which condemnation of coffered ceilings is followed by praise of the outdoors. Authors such as Lucretius and Seneca turn these ceilings, I argue, into a negative foil for the upward gaze, which had been recognized as a philosophically appropriate pose since at least the fifth century BCE. Meanwhile, on the domestic front, homeowners embraced this form of decoration for precisely the same reasons. A ceiling fresco from the Villa San Marco at Stabiae, for example, depicts a celestial sphere, inviting the strolling viewer to gaze upward and experience an evocation of the mental flight through the heavens that was a recurrent theme in ancient philosophy. The many floor mosaics that evoke ceiling decoration serve much the same purpose, reminding viewers to look to the skies as a source of intellectual inspiration. While Seneca and others saw these kinds of decorative schemes as competition, in a sense, for the kind of mind travel espoused by philosophy, most homeowners and their guests surely saw them as facilitating such an experience, encouraging a metaphorical flight through the heavens, and offering viewers a chance to mingle with the stars. Many Roman elites, fully steeped in philosophical literature and culture, were well aware of the paradoxical symbolism of coffered ceilings and chose to employ them nonetheless, untroubled by the contradiction that such decorative schemes could serve as symbols of both moral decline and spiritual elevation.


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