- Intentional failure: failure as a deliberate philosophical, rhetorical, or artistic strategy.
- Consciousness of potential failure in antiquity: the anxiety of ancient authors and artists about living up to their predecessors.
- Literary treatments of failure: thwarted love, flawed characters, fruitless wanderings.
- Failures of language and perception.
- Failures of genre: texts or objects considered flawed or “less than” examples of a genre.
- Modern and ancient reinterpretations of canonical texts or material objects as failing in some way.
Misapplications or appropriations of antiquity throughout history.
"Latin is a bit like a zombie: dead but still clamoring to get into our brains. In one discipline, however, Latin just got a bit deader. For at least 400 years, botanists across the globe have relied on Latin as their lingua franca, but the ardor has cooled. Scientists say plants will keep their double-barreled Latin names, but they have decided to drop the requirement that new species be described in the classical language. Instead, they have agreed to allow botanists to use English (other languages need not apply). In their scientific papers, they can still describe a newly found species of plant — or algae or fungi — in Latin if they wish, but most probably won’t."
Read more online at The Washington Post.