In Memoriam Valerie French

Valerie French, Associate Professor Emerita of History in American University, Washington, D.C., died suddenly in her home in Washington, Dec. 8, 2011, in her 71st year. She was born in Toledo, Ohio, Jan. 16, 1941. She received her B.A. degree in chemistry from Cornell University, where her interest in ancient history was awakened in classes under Donald Kagan. She pursued ancient history at UCLA, where she gained her M.A. and Ph. D. (1971) degrees, learning her needed languages in graduate school. She taught at American University from 1969 until her retirement in 2005. She received multiple awards for teaching and for her work in administration. Ebullient and supportive towards all, she served several years as a dean. She published widely on the history and activities of women and children in antiquity and sustained by herself the program in ancient history at American University. Other colleagues will discuss her work in these areas. This notice will focus on her strictly scientific work. It has remained little known but is of the highest importance for Greek, especially Athenian, history.

Her dissertation at UCLA was “The First Tribute Stele and the Athenian Empire, 455-445 B.C.,” 173 pp. It is unpublished but available from University Microfilms, under the name Valerie French Allen; she later gave up the name Allen and was known in her last decades by her maiden name, Valerie French. The official copy of the dissertation is held by the Department of History, UCLA. The work is a highly detailed study of the texts of the first ten of the Athenian tribute lists inscribed on the famous First Stele, or Lapis Primus, preserved in the Epigraphic Museum, Athens. The tribute lists constitute a document second only to Thucydides for our knowledge of fifth-century history. In this study French rigorously brought to bear her scientific training and proposed many important new readings and hypotheses. In measuring and reading the often worn and fragmentary letters she had the advice of Markellos Mitsos, the director of the EM, and of two of America’s preeminent epigraphists, Professors Ronald Stroud and Stephen Tracy. She drew attention to the need for multiple measurements of all ambiguous letters and preserved her many original readings in the notes to her discussion. The result is the only precise study of the texts of the tribute lists since the edition of the lists, known to all as ATL, by Meritt, Wade-Gery, and McGregor (Cambridge-Princeton, 1939-1953). Any future editor of the lists will inevitably have to use French’s work on the texts.

She submitted her manuscript to the University of California Press, which replied that it would not “publish all those numbers,” that is, her many records of measurements of the letters in her endnotes. Discouraged by this reply, she apparently lost interest in pursuing another publisher and turned to interests in other fields. Her publications in fifth-century classical studies are essentially limited to essays in Festschriften dedicated to Truesdell Brown, Donald Kagan, and Mortimer Chambers. The result is that her work on the Athenian empire has been all but totally overlooked. McGregor, who heard about it, requested from her a photocopy of her dissertation but seems to have made no use of it. It is briefly mentioned by Raphael Sealey in his A History of the Greek City States (Berkeley-Los Angeles 1976 etc., pp. 286, 296), in a discussion of W.K. Pritchett’s suggestion that a decorative relief, perhaps containing one list on its back, was mounted on the first stele above list 1. French (pp. 38-41) examined the surface at the top of the first stele and concluded that there was probably “a decorative relief which has been totally destroyed,” but she reserved judgment about whether this hypothetical relief also carried a list of a year’s tribute.

As one specimen of the originality and importance of her work, we may look at the first line of List 9 as numbered by ATL. This line is designated as a prescript by ATL (that is, it supposedly follows the usual formula at the head of a year’s record, “under the ninth board of treasurers, for which ... was secretary,” following which would come a list of cities that paid tribute. The reader will note, however, that only three Greek letters in the whole line are printed in ATL. The first is a dotted (that is, by epigraphic convention, uncertain) alpha, which ATL understands as the first letter of á¼€[ρχε̃ς], “board.” Eight letter-spaces farther on, ATL printed ἐν[á½±τες], “ninth,” in which both epsilon and nu are undotted, that is, considered certain by the editors.

Through repeated measurements of these supposed letters and the location of letters under them in the list of states paying tribute, specifically the name of the city Μενδα[á¿–οι], French showed that the undotted epsilon and nu of ἐν[á½±τες] cannot be read and, more crucially, that the whole line is not, as ATL held,  the prescript heading the records of tribute for the year. She finally sketched and interpreted the preserved marks as rho, gamma, alpha, part of [Βε]ργα[á¿–οι], a city in the Thraceward region; and the column in question contains only Thraceward names, thus “Bergaioi is the most likely restoration.”

French’s results support those of David Lewis, ABSA 49 (1954) 25-28, who with George Forrest had rejected the supposed alpha of á¼€[ρχε̃ς] as “no more than an accidental nick on a much-worn stone.” For Lewis, there was “a distinct possibility that the letters [sc. epsilon, nu of ATL’s ἐν[á½±τες] are not part of a prescript.” Lewis could not accept ATL’s ἐν[ and finallysaw “no alternative to the reading [Βερ]γ[αá¿–οι],” which was to be French’s final suggestion. Note, however, that she read rho, gamma, and a possible alpha, thus carrying the decipherment beyond Lewis. Her work on these letters, it will be seen, is not confined to rediscovering the name of one city, but requires a whole reconsideration of ATL’s list 9.

There is not enough space here to discuss the other critical subjects that French surveyed in her dissertation, such as ATL’s very adventurous opinion (barely accepted, reluctantly, by Meiggs-Lewis in their collection, p. 135) that in the year 449/8 the Athenians collected no tribute whatever and resumed collection in the next year. Rejecting this conclusion after detailed argument, French writes, “there is no ‘missing list,’ no year in which tribute was not collected” (p. 63). On all such topics French maintains her iron concentration and clear, vigorous prose;  and she provides data available nowhere else. Her work, based on a direct, hands-on study of the famous Lapis Primus, will surely some day receive the attention that it deserves.

Mortimer Chambers

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I am very pleased to report that the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation has made an additional grant of $300,000 to the American Philological Association (APA) for its Gatekeeper to Gateway Campaign to raise an Endowment for Classics Research and Teaching.  This grant, like the Foundation’s earlier gift of $325,000 in September 2008, supports the production of Classics bibliography through the American Office of L’Année philologique.  It also enables the APA to exceed all matching fund requirements of the challenge grant awarded to the Association by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) in June 2006. 

View full article. | Posted in SCS Announcements on Mon, 10/01/2012 - 5:41pm by Adam Blistein.

The Classical Works Knowledge Base (CWKB) is a new service of the American Philological Association developed under the direction of Eric Rebillard (Cornell University). The project was supported by a grant made to the American Philological Association (APA) in 2010 by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

CWKB contain information for the retrieval of citations from ancient Greek and Latin texts--from Homer (8 c. BC) to Bede (mid 8 c. AD)-- in the following online resources: Brepols Library of Latin Texts, Perseus Library, PHI Latin Texts,  Thesaurus Linguae Graecae.

CWKB adopts an OpenURL approach. It is both a relational database and a link resolver software. The relational database stores metadata about authors and works; the link resolver parses the OpenURLs, makes a lookup in the relational database, and returns links to digital libraries of Greek and Latin literatures. This web page has more information.

L'Année philologique online is the first resource to use CWKB for linking citations of ancient texts to digital libraries of text.

View full article. | Posted in SCS Announcements on Tue, 09/18/2012 - 8:14pm by Adam Blistein.

The Humanities Research Center at Rice University hosts up to three interdisciplinary visiting professors each year. The fellowship term ranges from one semester to one year.  Fellows teach one humanities course, participate in special symposia, and take part in an informal lecture series. Applicants must hold a tenured/tenure-track position and have received the PhD no later than June 2010. Annual salaries are commensurate with rank and length of term. Non-US scholars are especially encouraged to apply.  Applications for 2013-14 due October 29, 2012. See http://hrc.rice.edu for information.

View full article. | Posted in Awards and Fellowships on Tue, 09/11/2012 - 2:10pm by Adam Blistein.

From the Guardian (8/31/2012)

Alarmed by a decline in the use of Latin within the Catholic church, Pope Benedict is planning to set up a Vatican academy to breathe new life into the dead language.

Long used by the Vatican as its lingua franca, Latin is currently promoted by a small team within the office of the Holy See's secretary of state, which runs a Latin poetry competition and puts out a magazine.

But Benedict – a staunch traditionalist – is backing a plan for a new academy which would team up with academics to better "promote the knowledge and speaking of Latin, particularly inside the church," Vatican spokesman Fr Ciro Benedettini said on Friday.

Read more …

View full article. | Posted in Classics in the News on Thu, 09/06/2012 - 8:57pm by Information Architect.

We are happy to announce the publication of a new edition of Careers for Classicists in Today’s World by Kenneth F. Kitchell, Jr. with the assistance of the APA Education Committee.  Careers is copyright 2012 by the American Philological Association (APA) and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License

You are free to copy, distribute, transmit, and adapt the work provided that you attribute the work to the American Philological Association but not in a way that suggests that the APA endorses you or your use of the work and provided that you do not use this work for commercial purposes.  For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. The best way to do this is with a link to this web page.

View full article. | Posted in SCS Announcements on Thu, 09/06/2012 - 1:40pm by Adam Blistein.

A combined APA Newsletter for Winter and Spring 2012 is now available on the APA web site.  In a few weeks it will be mailed to members who requested printed copies of this publication when they paid their dues for 2012. 

View full article. | Posted in SCS Announcements on Wed, 09/05/2012 - 6:38pm by Adam Blistein.

The latest issue of Amphora (10.1 Summer 2012) is now available for downloading.

View full article. | Posted in SCS Announcements on Mon, 09/03/2012 - 4:30pm by .

See the APA web site for the schedule of sessions for the upcoming meeting in Seattle as well as information about registration, hotels, air travel discounts, and local attractions.  Please be sure to read a message from Program Chair Joe Farrell encouraging you to attend what promises to be a very exciting meeting in a very appealing city.  We encourage companies and organizations with publications, equipment, and services of interest to classicists and archaeologists to participate in the exhibit show for the joint annual meeting.

View full article. | Posted in SCS Announcements on Fri, 08/24/2012 - 7:16pm by Adam Blistein.

Members are invited to serve as volunteers at the 144th Annual Meeting of the Association in Seattle, WA this coming January.  Assignments include assistance in the Registration Area, monitoring session rooms, and supporting the Placement Service.  Interested members should contact Heather Gasda in the Association Office by October 1, 2012.  The Chair of the Local Arrangements Committee will develop a schedule of volunteer activity in late Fall.

In exchange for eight hours of service (either in one continuous or in two 4-hour assignments), volunteers receive a waiver of their annual meeting registration fees.  It is not necessary to be an APA member to volunteer.

View full article. | Posted in SCS Announcements on Fri, 08/17/2012 - 7:36pm by Adam Blistein.

The August 2012 issue of Positions has been posted on the APA web site.

View full article. | Posted in SCS Announcements on Thu, 08/16/2012 - 3:22pm by Adam Blistein.

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