Professional Matters Division
Committee on the Status of Women and Minority Groups Department Census Report 1999-2004
This Departmental Census Report provides information about the composition of classics faculty, through information about hiring and tenure status, in the US and Canada for the 1999-2004. This report was made possible by the efforts of Barbara McManus who generously supplied the statistical data and the tables accompanying this text and answered numerous queries.
The data for this report comes from the 2004 Department Census, which requested information on faculty composition, courses offered, and Classics degrees granted in 2002-2003 but also gathered data on hiring and tenure decisions for the five-year period from 1999-2004. Because, however, the data for this report overlaps substantially with previous years (previous reports cover up to the 2002-2003 academic year), the information in it provides a supplement to the 2002-2003 survey. There are some additions in this report, however, where new questions have supplied new information. The next report (2009) will provide the best next set of data for analyzing recent trends in the status of women and minorities in the discipline.
Details about the Survey Response
The master list of departments offering Classics courses contains 450 (Canada 41; US, 409); 274 departments returned the survey (Canada, 28; US, 246). The overall response rate for the census was 61%. This response rate compares favorably with previous years: for the 2002-2003 the response rate was 56% and 49% in 2001-2002. Since more surveys were mailed (450 compared with 399 for the 2002-2003 and 415 for the 2001-2002), we now have a larger pool of data.
Nota Bene: One of the 246 US responses was from an institution that opened its doors in Fall 2003; this institution is counted in the BA-granting departments in Figures 1-2 and in the statistics on hiring but not in the other statistics, since there were no students, courses, or faculty in 2002-2003.
The 1999-2004 survey suggests that, on the whole, women appear to be reaching more of a balance with men on obtaining tenure-track positions. When it comes to earning tenure, however, women continue to earn tenure (48.6 compared with 82 for men; Table 8a) in lower numbers than men and are denied more often (3 denials for men, 5 for women; Table 9a) than men, although the number of denials is relatively small (8 total denials out of 138.611 applicants for tenure). Yet, in terms of percentage, 9.3% of women who applied for tenure were denied compared with 3.52% for men, and women continue to represent a higher percentage of faculty who are denied tenure (63% for the 1999-2004 data set).
In 2002-2003 (the year information was requested for this question, rather than the five year data), women represented 21.4% of full professors (12% in Canada and 22% in the US), 38% of associate professors (34% in Canada and 39% in the US), and 44% of assistant professors (42% in Canada and 44% in the US; Tables 6 and 7). The closeness of the percentages between assistant (44%) and associate (38%) suggests there will be only a small increase in the number of associate professors, depending on the tenure success rate (and assuming that assistants are untenured and associates are tenured). The greatest change in the status of women will come in the rank of professor, where, the percentage of women at the rank of professor could increase over the next 4-8 years, since the disparity between men and women is so great. The next report should give some hint of whether or not there is progress.
Minority representation in Classics is still shockingly low, with no minorities hired with tenure, only 5.9 minorities hired tenure-track, 1 minority hired non-tenure-track. More study is needed to determine whether the relative absence of minorities stems from problems of outreach, the appeal of the field more generally, or other factors. Comparisons with other disciplines in the humanities would be helpful.
With only 4 minorities granted tenure and 2 denied tenure, the situation will likely only get worse in the near future. Minorities are being denied tenure at a higher percentage (33%--2 out of 6) than women.3%--5 out of 53.6). This situation is especially alarming for the diversity of the profession. Although the numbers are small and therefore each case makes a significant statistical difference, each case also makes a significant human difference for the profession. Further, with only one PhD conferred to a minority in 2002-2003, there does not seem to be hope for greater diversity in the very near future. That said, with 10 MAs conferred on minorities, there is a chance that a greater number of minorities may soon be entering the profession. It is crucial to monitor and actively encourage the progress of these MA candidates.
The data for this report offered separate statistics for the United States and Canada. We have, therefore, analyzed the information first for the US, then for Canada, with comparisons and conclusions for the whole data set following.
United States 1999-2004
Obtaining Positions in 1999-2004:
When tenured and tenure-track jobs in the United States are combined
, 46.6% of hires during the five-year period went to women (45.25 hires in PhD-granting departments, 9 MA/MAT-granting departments, 39.4 BA-granting departments, 4 in departments with no major; Tables 10 and 11). (The partial numbers represent partial appointments.)
With tenure: 36% of hires with tenure went to women (Table 10). The lower percentage of women's hires with tenure may reflect the fact that there are more men in tenured positions than women; only 29% of tenured faculty are women (Table 4), compared with 47% of those faculty on tenure-track (Table 4).
Tenure track: Women accounted for 56% of tenure-track hires in PhD-granting departments, but accounted for only 43% of tenure-track hires in departments where the BA is the highest Classics degree (Table 11). The number of women entering tenure-track positions in PhD-granting departments is roughly equal to the number of women entering tenure track positions in BA-granting departments (37.25 hires in PhD-granting departments versus 36.9 in BA granting departments, Table 11), despite the greater number of positions available in BA-granting departments (84.9 positions versus 66.25 in PhD-granting departments). In MA/MAT-granting departments, women accounted for 50% of tenure-track hires (8 out of 16 positions).
Non-tenure track: In the United States, 44% of full-time non-tenure-track hires went to women; women accounted for 53% of these hires in PhD-granting departments, 50% in MA/MAT-granting departments, and 39% in BA-granting departments (see Table 12).
Very few members of minority groups appear to be entering the field (see Tables 10, 11, and 12). Of the 177.15 tenure-track hires in the US, only 5.9 went to minorities (3.3% of total). No tenured hires in the five-year period went to a member of a minority group. 1 (out of 152) non-tenure track hire went to a member of a minority group (0.7% of total hires; Table 12).
Obtaining Tenure in 1999-2004:
The survey counts a total of 1237.235 classics faculty (represented in FTE numbers, including full-time and part-time appointments), of which 444.969 are women and 792.266 are men.
Women accounted for 37% of tenure grants in the United States in the five-year period (40.6 women received tenure out of a total of 110.611 tenure grants, see Table 8a). Women received 45% of the tenure grants in BA-granting departments (21.6 women received tenure out of a total of 47.611 grants), 28% in MA/MAT-granting departments (4 women received tenure out of a total of 14.5 tenure grants), and 27% in PhD-granting departments (12 women received tenure out of 44 total grants). During the five-year period, women were more successful in obtaining tenure in BA-granting departments than in MA or PhD-granting departments.
The information in Tables 8a and 9a indicates that 20% of the women who applied for tenure in PhD-granting departments were denied (3 out of 15 applicants), whereas only 4.4% of women who applied in BA-granting departments were denied (1 out of 22.6 applicants). There were no denials in MA-granting departments. By contrast, only 6% 5.8% of men who applied for tenure in PhD-granting departments were denied (2 out of 34), and 3.7% of men were denied in BA-granting departments (1 out of 27.011).
In terms of the basic numbers, of the 117.611 applicants for tenure in the US, 7 were denied. Of these 7, 4 were women.
In PhD-granting departments, 1 minority was granted tenure (Table 8b), while two minorities (1 male, 1 female) were denied tenure (Table 9b). At MA/MAT-granting departments, 1 minority was granted tenure; there were no denials (Tables 8b and 9b). At BA-granting departments, 2 minorities were granted tenure; there were no denials (Tables 8b and 9b).
During the five year period, 4 minorities were granted tenure (67%), while 2 (or 33%) were denied.
The Status in Rank in 2002-2003
Women represented 36% of faculty at all ranks in 2002-2003 (444.969 positions out of the total of 1237.235 positions; Table 3 and Figure 3). 59% (730.315 positions) of classics faculty held tenured positions in 2002-2003; tenured women represented 17% of the total classics faculty and tenured men, 42% (212.13 versus 518.185 positions). 19% of positions were tenure-track; tenure-track women represented 9% of total classics faculty, and tenure-track men, 10% (233.009 total; 108.409 women and 124.6 men). Non-tenure track positions (153.67) represent 12% of the total faculty; non-tenure-track men (86) represented 7% of the total classics faculty, and non-tenure-track women (67.67). The final 10% of positions were part-time positions (120.241); part-time men represented 5.1% of the total classics faculty, and part-time women, 4.6%.
Full Professors: In 2002/03 (Table 6), women accounted for 94.3 (out of 325.092) or 22% full professors in the field (21% in PhD departments, 27 % in MA/MAT departments, 22% in BA departments, and 26% in departments with no major).
Associate Professors: 116.83 or 39% of associate professors are women (39%
are in PhD, 37% in MA/MAT, 41% in BA-granting departments, and 26% in departments with no major).
Assistant Professors: Women represent 44% (129.909 out of 295.009) of assistant professors, (50% in PhD, 50% in MA/MAT, 37% in BA-granting departments, and 55% in departments offering no major).
Other: In full-time positions with a rank of Instructor (or comparable title), women represent 55% (17.25 positions out of 31.25) in PhD-granting departments, 39% (6.5 out of 16.5 positions) in MA/MAT-granting departments, 40% (16.42 out of 40.92) in BA-granting departments, and 58% (7 out of 12) in departments with no majors. Overall, women held 47% of positions with the rank of Instructor (Table 6).
Of a total of 1116.994 full-time faculty, 25.9 are minorities, representing 2.3% of the profession (Table 14). Roughly half, 12 of the 25.9, hold positions in PhD-granting institutions. 9.9 hold positions in BA-granting institutions, with 3 in MA/MAT and 1 in a department with no major.
Minorities represent a slightly higher percentage of part-time positions: 3.0% or 3.57 positions. Of the 120.241 part-time positions, 3.07 positions in BA-granting departments were held by minorities. One minority holds a .5 position in an MA/MAT-granting department. No information was offered as to the different ranks of minority faculty.
Courses on Gender/Sexuality
The 1999-2004 survey did not ask about courses on minority groups, so this report will only address courses on Gender/Sexuality (Table 16).
73 departments offered a total of 94 courses on gender/sexuality in the United States. 33 BA-granting departments offered 42 courses; 15 MA/MAT-granting institutions offered 15 courses, and 20 PhD-granting departments offered 30 courses. The remaining 7 courses were offered by departments with no major. Of the 241 departments that provided course information, 30% were offering courses on gender/sexuality, with the highest percentage occurring in PhD-granting institutions (50%: 20 out of 40) and the lowest among degree-granting departments being at the BA level (25% or 33 out of 130).
Conclusions – United States
Women account for 56% of tenure track hires in PhD-granting departments and 50% of hires at MA/MAT-granting institutions.
Women now represent 50% of assistant professors in both PhD and MA/MAT-granting departments, and 44% of assistant professors overall. The parity of numbers in assistant professor positions in PhD and MA/MAT-granting departments (PhD = 54 men versus 53.5 women; MA/MAT = 18 men versus 17.5 women) suggests that watching this population over the next 6-12 years will be crucial for determining the success of women in gaining tenure and promotion, especially to the rank of full professor, where overall men still vastly outnumber women (325.092 men versus 94.3 women).
The difference between women and men in tenure positions (29% versus 71%) represents the one of the most serious areas of gender-imbalance in the profession in the United States.
Women and minorities continue to be denied tenure at a higher percentage than men.
Too few BA-granting departments offer courses on gender/sexuality.
(Nota bene: Previous surveys do not offer a breakdown between US and Canadian institutions, so a comparison with previous surveys would, at this point, be misleading. A comparison with overall numbers will appear at the end of this survey.)
Obtaining Positions in 1999-2004:
Of a total 62.1 hires, 24.5 were women (39.5%):
With Tenure: Of the total 62.1 hires, 7 (6-Ph.D; 1-MA/MAT) were with tenure. Of these 7, 2 (both in PhD-granting departments) were women (29%). (See Table 10.)
Tenure-Track: Of the total 62.1 hires, 42 were full tenure-track positions in classics; one was a position split 50-50 with another department and one was a position split 60 (classics)-40 with another department for a total of 43.1. Of these, 15.5 (5.5-PhD; 7-MA/MAT; 3-BA) were women (36%). (See Table 11.)
Non-tenure track: Of the total 62.1 hires, 12 were non-tenure track positions. Of these 12, 7 (2-PhD; 1-MA/MAT; 4-BA) were women (58%). (See Table 12.)
There were no minority hires reported in Canada in this period. Canadian institutions do not keep such statistics or choose not to report them in most instances.
Obtaining Tenure 1999-2004:
In 2002-2003, Canadian institutions reported a total of 106.5 tenured faculty (28 departments reporting). Of these, 25 were women (23%). (See Table 5).
In the period 1999-2004, 21 faculty applied for tenure (9-PhD; 7-MA/MAT; 5-BA). Of these, 9 (3-PhD; 3-MA/MAT; 3-BA) were women (
45% 43%). Of the 20 who were granted tenure, 8 women (2-PhD 3-MA/MAT; 3-BA) were awarded tenure ( 38% 40%). The only person denied tenure was 1 woman at a PhD-granting department. (See Tables 8a and 9a).
There were no minority tenure applications reported in Canada in this period. Canadian institutions do not keep such statistics or choose not to report them in most instances.
The Status of Rank in 2002-2003
Women represented 34% of faculty at all ranks in 2002-2003 (59.966 positions out of the total of 177.996 positions; Table 3 and Figure 3). 60% (106.5 positions) of classics faculty held tenured positions in 2002-2003; tenured women represented 14% of the total classics faculty and tenured men, 46% (25 versus 81.5 positions). 21% of positions were tenure-track; tenure-track women represented 7% of total classics faculty, and tenure-track men, 13% (36.6 total; 13 women and 23.6 men). Non-tenure track positions (18) represented 10% of the total faculty; non-tenure-track men (8) represented 4% of the total classics faculty, and non-tenure-track women (10), 6%. The final 9% of positions were part-time positions (16.896); part-time men represented 3% of the total classics faculty, and part-time women, 7%.
Full Professors: Women account for 6 out of a total of 49.25 or 12% of Full Professors in Canadian classics departments in the 28 departments that responded (Table 7). 5 are in PhD-granting departments, with 1 in a BA-granting department.
Associate Professors: Of the 55.25 associate professors, 19 were women, representing 34% (Table 7). These positions are spread evenly across PhD (6), MA/MAT (6), and BA (7) departments.
Assistant Professors: 42% of assistant professors in Canadian classics departments are women (19 out of the total of 45.6). Of these, 8 are in PhD-granting departments, 5 in MA/MAT and 6 in BA-granting departments.
Other: Of the 11 instructors or full-time positions of comparable rank, 4 (36%) are women. 3 of the 4 hold positions in MA/MAT-granting departments, while 1 was in a PhD-granting department.
There is no information about the number or percentage of minorities currently in Canadian classics departments. Canadian institutions do not keep such statistics or chose not to report them in most instances.
Courses on Gender/Sexuality
The 1999-2004 survey did not ask about courses on minority groups, so this report will only address courses on Gender/Sexuality (Table 16).
26 departments offered a total of 9 courses on gender/sexuality in Canada. 3 BA-granting departments offered 3 courses; 2 MA/MAT-granting institutions offered 4 courses, and 2 PhD-granting departments offered 2 courses. No courses were offered by departments with no major. Of the 26 departments that provided course information , 27% were offering courses on gender/sexuality, with the lowest percentage occurring in PhD-granting institutions (25%: 2 out of 8) and the highest among degree-granting departments being at the MA/MAT level (40% or 2 out of 5
15). 30% or 3 out of the 10 BA-granting departments offer such courses.
Conclusions- Canada: The 2002-2003 Situation and the Future:
Canadian institutions do not keep such statistics or chose not to report them in most instances.
That said, the situation appears rather bleak. Without more statistics on the current situation and with no hires to suggest a greater representation of minorities in the future, there is just not a lot more to say.
In 2002-2003, women accounted for only 6 of a total 49.25 full professors (12%). The good news is that women represent a substantially higher number (19 of 55.25 total) and percentage of associate professors (34%) and of assistant professors (19 out of 45.6 for 42%). If women make successful bids for promotion, the number of women at the rank of full professor should improve dramatically. There is also reason to believe, given the low rate of tenure denials overall (in terms of raw numbers—1 out of 21 overall applications or
4.7% 4.8% with 1 out of 9 women denied tenure or 11%), that the number of women in associate professor positions should increase as well. (See Tables 8a and 9a).
Differences between Canada and the United States in Offering and Obtaining Positions and Implications for the Future
The comparisons use the tables for the 2002-2003 survey which include numbers from the 2001-2002 survey and the 1997-2001 means. All references to tables using Roman numerals refer to the tables in the 2002-2003 survey.
Comparisons are a little misleading, since almost 9x the number of US departments are included in the survey (246 US vs. 28 Canadian); however, the percentages of departments responding are comparable (60% response rate in the US and 68% in Canada). However, some general points maybe worthwhile:
In both Canada and the US, PhD-granting departments represent a high percentage of jobs available (41% in Canada and 34.5% in the US) relative to their representation in the percentage of institutions: 28.5% in Canada (8 out of 28) and 17% in the US (41 out of 246).
MA/MAT-granting departments accounted for only 25% of the respondents in Canada (7 out of 28) but offered 35% of open positions. In contrast, MA/MAT-granting departments accounted for 16% of the respondents in the US (39 out of 246) and only 10% of open positions.
BA-granting departments represent 36% of Canadian respondents (10 out of 28) and 54% of US institutions (132 out of 246). Canadian BA-granting departments had only 22% of the openings whereas US BA-granting departments accounted for 50% of the jobs.
Although minorities continue to be vastly under-represented in the US, the situation appears worse in Canada, although Canadian institutions reported that they do not keep such statistics or chose not to report them in most instances.
Tenure:Of a total 130.611 grants of tenure in the 1999-2004 period, 4 (3.1%) went to minorities while 2 (25%) minorities were denied tenure (2 in the US; Tables 8b and 9b). In terms of earning tenure, this number represents an improvement over the 2002-2003 survey in which 1 (2.3%) minority earned tenure; the 2001-2002 survey in which .75 (2.6%) minorities earned tenure and the 1997-2001 mean of 1 (5.4%) (Table Va). For tenure denials, the
3 2 (25%) in 1999-2004 seems to reflect those reported in 2002-2003 (1 or 30% of denials) and 2001-2002 (1 or 33% of denials). In the 1997-2001 period no minorities were denied tenure. More minorities are applying for but also being denied tenure.
Positions: Of the total of 423.75 hires in the US (361.65) and Canada (62.1), 6.9 positions went to minorities (all US) or 1.6% of full-time hires. No positions were with tenure (Table 10); 5.9 (2.7%) positions were tenure-track; 1 position was non-tenure-track. Only the 1997-2001 mean records a minority (.4) as being hired with tenure (Table VIa); this was reported in 1998-99. In 2002-2003, 3.9 (7.3%) minorities were hired tenure-track, an increase over the 2 (4.4%) in 2001-2002 and the 1997-2001 mean of 2 (7%).
Degrees: 10 minorities earned MA degrees and represent the potential for a greater diversity in the profession, if they obtain PhDs and enter the academic world. Even better, however, is the news that 106 minorities obtained BA degrees in 2002-2003. The next survey will be critical for tracking these students as future faculty.
Positions: Of the total of 423.75 hires in the US (361.65) and Canada (62.1), women accounted for 188.65 positions (Canada 24.5; US 164.15) or 44.5% of full-time hires.
With Tenure: 11.2% of hires in Canada were with tenure; 9% of hires in the US were with tenure. The percentage of women hired with tenure (Canada 3.2% vs. US 3.2% of total hires in each country), is the same, but the raw numbers (2 out of 7 in Canada vs. 11.5 out of 32.5 in the US) show that being hired with tenure is still less common for women than for men (Canada 8% vs. US 5.8%) and is fairly rare overall.
Tenure-Track: 69% of hires in Canada were tenure track; 49% of hires in the US were tenure track. The percentage of women (Canada 25% vs. US 24% of total hires in each country) hired tenure-track is also comparable. (Raw numbers: 15.5 out of 62.1 in Canada vs. 86.15 out of 361.65 in US.) The raw numbers show that almost twice as many tenure-track jobs went to men (15.5 women vs. 27.6 men) in Canada compared with a much more balanced hiring in the US (86.15 women vs. 91 men). Thus, although there is a higher percentage of tenure-track jobs in Canada, fewer of those jobs are going to women.
Non Tenure-track: 19.3% of hires in Canada were non-tenure-track; 42% of hires in the US were non-tenure-track. When it comes to non-tenure-track hires, Canada shows more of a balance (5 men vs. 7 women), with an overall percentage of 11% of women hired into non-tenure track positions (7 out of the total hires of 62.1). In the US, women in non-tenure-track positions (66.5 women vs. 85.5 men) represent 18% of the total hires (and 44% of all women hired in the US during this period), suggesting that women are slightly more likely to be hired into non-tenure-track positions in the US than in Canada because there are more non-tenure-track positions. Overall, however, more men were hired into non-tenure track positions than women.
The percentage of hires with tenure is low in both countries, comprising about 10% of hires. Tenure-track or non-tenure-track hires account for the majority of hires in both countries. A significant difference in hiring practices in Canada and the United States does appear in the relative percentages of tenure-track versus full-time non-tenure track hires (see Figure 14). Whereas tenure-track positions account for 49 % of hires in the United States, in Canada they account for 69% of hires. Similarly, non-tenure-track positions account for 42% of US hires, but only 19%
20% of Canadian hires. This high number of non-tenure track hires may represent a shift to replacing tenure-track/tenure positions with non-tenure track position, but a longer term study is necessary to confirm this possible trend.
Conclusions – US and Canada and Comparisons with past surveys
Minorities currently represent 2.3% (25.9 of 1116.994) of the full-time faculty (Table 14). This percentage represents a decrease in the diversity of the profession. 2002-2003 shows 39.6 minority faculty (this figure includes both full-time and part-time positions) or 3.1% of the faculty overall. 2001-2002 survey recorded 32.35 minority faculty (2.5%) and the 1997-2001 mean records 19.5 (2.5%. Table II).
Positions: Minority representation in Classics is still shockingly low, with no minorities hired with tenure, only 5.9 minorities hired tenure-track, 1 minority hired non-tenure-track. This number does, however, represent an improvement in raw numbers, if not in percentage. In 1997-2001 2 minorities were hired tenure-track (7%); in 2001-2002, 2 minorities were hired tenure-track (4.4%); in 2002-2003 3.9 minorities were hired tenure-track (7.3%). More study is needed to determine whether the relative absence of minorities stems from problems of outreach, the presentation of the field more generally, or other factors.
Tenure: With only 4 minorities granted tenure and 2 denied tenure, the situation will likely only get worse in the near future. Minorities are being denied tenure at a higher percentage (33%--2 out of 6) than women (9.3%-5 out of 53.6). This situation is especially alarming for the diversity of the profession.
Degrees: Although the numbers are small and therefore each case makes a significant statistical difference, each case also makes a significant human difference for the profession. Further, with only one PhD conferred to a minority in 2002-2003, there does not seem to be hope for greater diversity in the very near future. That said, with 10 MAs conferred on minorities, there is a chance that 4-6 years from now a greater number of minorities may be entering the profession. It is crucial to monitor and actively encourage the progress of these MA candidates. Further hope lies in the 106 BA degrees awarded to minorities. The next survey will reveal whether or not these students have pursued advanced degrees and may represent an increase in diversity in the profession.
In 2002-2003, women represented 36% of faculty, but only 28% of tenured faculty. Women as a percentage of the faculty has not changed since 1997 (36%, 37% in 2001-2002; see Table II in the 2002-2003 report), nor has women as a percentage of tenured faculty (29% in 2002-2003 survey, 30% in 2001-2002, and 28% in the 1997-2001 means.
Rank: In terms of rank, women represented 21.4% of full professors (12% in Canada and 22% in the US), 38% of associate professors (34% in Canada and 39% in the US), and 44% of assistant professors (42% in Canada and 44% in the US). The closeness of the percentages between assistant (44%) and associate (38% ) suggests there will be only a small increase in the number of associate professors, depending on the tenure success rate (and assuming that assistants are untenured and associates are tenured). The greatest change in the status of women will come in the rank of professor, where the gender disparity is greatest and hence, the percentage of women at the rank of professor could increase over the next 4-8 years. Previous surveys did not gather information about rank, so future surveys will be crucial for determining trends.
Positions: The percentage of women being hired in tenure-track positions is somewhat lower in the 1999-2004 survey (46%, Table 11) in comparison to the 1997-2001 mean of 50% (Table VIb) after a slight rise to 51% in the 2002-2003 survey (Table VIb).
Tenure: With 48.6 (37%) awards of tenure for women (compared with 82.011 or 63% for men), men continue to earn tenure in greater numbers and are denied less often (3 denials for men, 5 for women) than women. The percentage of tenure grants held steady from the 2002-2003 survey (16 out of 43 or 37%; Table Va), both of which represent a decrease in the percentage of women receiving tenure from the 2001-2002 (12 out of 28.75 or 42%) and the 1997-2001 mean (8.15 out of 18.35 or 44%).
In terms of tenure denials, the percentages range from a high of 67% (2 out of 3 denials) in the 2001-2002 survey to a low of 10% (.33 out of 3.33) in the 2002-2003 survey. That women tend to represent two-thirds of tenure denials (63% in 1997-2001, 67% in 2001-2002, and 63% in 1999-2004) suggest reason for concern.
Conclusions about Courses on Gender/Sexuality
30% of the departments which offered information about courses for the years 2002-2003 reported offering courses on gender or sexuality. The difficulty in making comparisons with past years comes from a change in the data for this survey. Previous surveys separated out courses on women, courses on sexuality, and courses on minorities (see Table VIIIb of the 2002-2003 Departmental Census). The latest survey offers no information about courses on minorities. The Census reports fewer courses in this area than in previous reports.
Departments offering a degree in classics are much more likely to offer a course on gender/sexuality. In the US departments offering graduate degrees are almost twice as likely as BA-granting departments or departments with no major to offer courses on gender/sexuality. In Canada, departments offering an MA/MAT are a little more likely to offer courses on gender/sexuality. Questions about courses on minorities should be returned to the survey. In addition, questions should again separate out courses on women from courses on sexuality.
Submitted respectfully, if tardily,
T. Davina McClain
Scholars' College at Northwestern State University