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Typing with GreekKeys Unicode Input in Mac OS X

The following instructions describe the use of the US version of the input. If you are using one of the other localized versions, most of what is said below still applies, but consult the Keyboard Chart for your version (in the folder GK2015 Keyboard Charts Mac in the folder GK2015 Documentation in the download).

Most users will be typing in two languages and scripts, their native modern language and polytonic Greek. You must change the selected input in the Input Menu every time you switch from one script to the other. You do not always have to change the font, but it is often a good idea to do so if you are preparing an article or book for a possible publication. It is far more efficient to use a keyboard shortcut to switch inputs than to make the change in the Input Menu with the mouse. For details about the use of the keyboard shortcuts, see the GK2015UserGuide.pdf, section 8.

PLAIN GREEK CHARACTERS

The plain Greek letters are arranged as on a modern Greek keyboard, except that upsilon is “u” and theta is “y” [but the input with suffix (USalt) maps upsilon to “y” and theta to “u”]. Most other equivalences are obvious, such as alpha at “a” and beta at “b.” The less obvious items are final sigma at “w,” psi at “c,” xi at “j,” and omega at “v.”

DIACRITICS AND SPECIAL CHARACTERS

The diacritics are arranged across the top row of the regular keyboard (ignoring the function keys), starting from the key on which the numeral 1 is located. Diacritics are entered as “deadkeys”: that is, they are typed before the vowel to which they belong. They all involve the option key or the option key together with the shift key. On some non-US keyboards, there are additional locations for some deadkey diacritics.

DEADKEYS: COMBINING ELEMENTS TO BE TYPED BEFORE THE VOWEL


option-1 acute
option-2 grave
option-3 circumflex
option-4 smooth breathing
option-5 rough breathing
option-6 smooth and acute
option-7 rough and acute
option-8 smooth and grave
option-9 rough and grave
option-0 smooth and circumflex
option-hyphen rough and circumflex
option-= breve
option-shift-= macron
option-shift-1 diaeresis
option-shift-2 diaeresis with acute
option-shift-3 diaeresis with grave
option-shift-4 diaeresis with circumflex

NOTE 1: The breathing signs may be used with rho as well as with vowels.

NOTE 2: Multiple deadkeys may be entered before typing the vowel. Thus option-1 followed by option-4 followed by a produces alpha with smooth and acute (and the same results from option-4 followed by option-1 followed by a); or option-5 followed by shift-option-= followed by a produces alpha with macron and rough breathing (and the same results from shift-option-= followed by option-5 followed by a).

ADDITIONAL DIACRITICS AND SPECIAL CHARACTERS

The following are consistent across all the localized versions of the input.


option-a alpha with iota subscript [U+1FB3]
option-shift-a capital alpha with iota adscript [U+1FBC]
option-h eta with iota subscript [U+1FC3]
option-shift-h capital eta with iota adscript
option-v omega with iota subscript [U+1FF3]
option-shift-v capital omega with iota adscript [U+1FFC
w final sigma [U+03C2]
shift-w archaic sampi [U+03E1]
option-w digamma (vau) [U+03DD]
option-shift-w capital digamma (vau) [U+03DC]
option-s lunate sigma [U+03F2]
option-shift-s capital lunate sigma [U+03F9]
q archaic koppa [U+03D9]
shift-q capital archaic koppa [U+03D8]
option-q archaic san [U+03FB]
option-shift-q capital archaic san [U+03FA]
option-g archaic heta [U+0371]
option-shift-g capital archaic heta [U+0370]
option-k stigma [U+03DB]
option-j yot [U+03F3]
option-shift-j capital yot [U+037F]
option-shift-k kai symbol [U+03D7]
option-t obelus [U+2020]
< and > (shift-, and shift-.) left and right angle brackets [U+27E8-9]

The following apply to the US version (the same characters are available in non-US versions, but the key assignments may differ: see the Keyboard Charts):



shift-option-u capital archaic sampi [U+03E0]
option-shift-i capital stigma [U+03DA]
option-shift-p modern/numeric Greek koppa [U+03DF]
option-shift-o capital modern/mumeric Greek koppa [U+03DE]
apostrophe (single straight quote) curved apostrophe (right single quote) [U+2019]
option-shift-comma left lower half-bracket [U+230A]
option-shift-period right lower half-bracket [U+230B]
option-[ left guillemot [U+00AB]
option-] right guillemot [U+00BB]
option-shift-[ left double-bracket [U+27E6]
option-shift-] right double-bracket [U+27E7]
option-l (letter) capital Kai abbreviation [U+03cf]
semicolon Greek question mark (English semicolon) [U+003B]
shift-semicolon Greek colon (single mid-line dot) [U+00B7]
option-shift-semicolon Greek dicolon (English colon) [U+003A]
option-n left single curly quote [U+2018]
option-m straight apostrophe (straight single quote) [U+0027]
option-' left double curly quote [U+201C]
option-shift-' right double curly quote [U+201D]
option-comma modifier letter apostrophe (non-combining smooth breathing) [U+02bc]
option-z section symbol [U+00A7]
option-c Greek numeral sign [U+0374]
option-shift-c Greek numeral sign (lower) [U+0375]
option-b Greek beta symbol [U+03D0]
option-shift-7 metrical longum (non-combining) [U+2012][1]
option-shift-8 metrical breve (non-combining) [U+23D1]
option-shift-9 metrical anceps [U+00D7]
option-shift-e metrical catalexis (omission caret) [U+EC3D]
option-shift-r metrical caesura symbol (dotted vertical) [U+003A]
option-shift-t metrical inverted breve (brevis in longo) [U+2312]
option-shift-y metrical period-end (double bar) [U+2016]
option-p wavy equal sign (approximately equal) [U+2248]
option-\ broken vertical bar [U+00A6]
option-shift-hyphen em dash [U+2014]
option-shift- en dash [U+2013]
shift-option-grave combining dot above [U+0307]
(needed with iota and upsilon for some medieval palaeographic purposes)

Three items are to be typed AFTER the character to which they apply:



option-period sublinear dot [U+0323]
option-y overline above previous letter [U+0305]
option-i iota subscript (alternative method) [U+0345]

 

OTHER TOPICS

Please consult the GK2015UserGuide.pdf, sections 6E-11, for details about the Mac OS X Character Viewer (unfortunately renamed in 10.11 El Capitan to Emoji & Symbols), Unicode Hex input, the Keyboard Viewer, decomposed inputs, and keyboard shortcuts for changing inputs or for changing fonts, GreekKeys Symbol input, and other advanced topics.

Typing with GreekKeys Unicode Input in Windows

The following instructions describe the use of the US version of the keyboard. If you are using one of the other localized versions, most of what is said below still applies, but consult the Keyboard Chart for your version (in the folder GK2015 Keyboard Charts Windows in the folder GK2015 Documentation in the download).

Most users will be typing in two languages and scripts, their native modern language and polytonic Greek. You must change the selected language (keyboard) in the Language Menu every time you switch from one script to the other. You do not always have to change the font, but it is often a good idea to do so if you are preparing an article or book for a possible publication. It is far more efficient to use a keyboard shortcut to switch keyboards than to make the change in the Language Menu with the mouse. For details about the use of the keyboard shortcuts, see the GK2015UserGuide.pdf, sections 12C and 18.

PLAIN GREEK CHARACTERS

The plain Greek letters are arranged as on a modern Greek keyboard, except that upsilon is “u” and theta is “y.” Most other equivalences are obvious, such as alpha at “a” and beta at “b.” The less obvious items are final sigma at “w,” psi at “c,” xi at “j,” and omega at “v.”

DIACRITICS AND SPECIAL CHARACTERS

The GKU keyboards for Windows actually allow two styles of input for letters with diacritics: by deadkey typed before the vowel or rho to invoke the modified letter instead of the plain letter; or by combining diacritic typed after a plain vowel or rho. The resulting input to the file is different in the two cases. The first method produces input for precomposed characters that is far more reliable and far less likely to produce problems when a file is shared across platforms or some Greek text is copied into other programs. This method is strongly recommended and is explained here.

The second method is for advanced users with particular needs for special characters or decomposed input. Please consult the GK2015UserGuide.pdf, section 16.

DEADKEY METHOD (PRESS KEY BEFORE THE LETTER TO BE MODIFIED)

The deadkey method uses the 12 keys on the top row (ignoring Fkeys, if they are present) from the numeral 1 to the rightmost key (equal sign on US keyboard). These are the same keys with the same ordering of diacritics as are used in the Mac OS X version. Unlike the Mac OS X version, the deadkeys in Windows (except for combining diaeresis) are not invoked by a modifier key, but either by the unshifted key or the shifted key. If you need, in the midst of your Greek, the character that is actually shown on the key, then type the key followed by space to obtain it. For example typing 1 then space inputs 1, or typing shift-9 then space inputs left parenthesis.

The following work with all vowels (and breathings work with rho as well):


1 acute
2 grave
3 circumflex
4 smooth breathing
5 rough breathing
6 smooth and acute
7 rough and acute
8 smooth and grave
9 rough and grave
0 smooth and circumflex
hyphen* rough and circumflex

                      *or the eleventh key, which may not be hyphen on non-US keyboards

The following works with the vowels alpha, epsilon, iota, omicron, upsilon:


equal** breve

            **or the twelfth key, which may not be equal on non-US keyboards

NOTE: press spacebar after any of the above deadkeys to input what is shown on the key (numbers 0-9, hyphen, equal). Press any of these keys twice to enter the noncombining (spacing) version of the diacritic.

The following work with alpha, eta, and omega, and (except the first 3) with their capital forms:



shift-1 iota subscript and acute
[or diaeresis acute with iota or upsilon]
shift-2 iota subscript and grave
[or diaeresis grave with iota or upsilon]
shift-3 iota subscript and circumflex
[or diaeresis circumflex with iota or upsilon]
shift-4 iota subscript and smooth breathing
shift-5 iota subscript and rough breathing
shift-6 iota subscript and smooth and acute
shift-7 iota subscript and rough and acute
shift-8 iota subscript and smooth and grave
shift-9 iota subscript and rough and grave
shift-0 iota subscript and smooth and circumflex
shift-hyphen* iota subscript and rough and circumflex

            *or the eleventh key, which may not be hyphen on non-US keyboards

The following works with the vowels alpha, epsilon, iota, omicron, upsilon:


shift-equal** macron

            **or the twelfth key, which may not be equal on non-US keyboards

NOTE: press spacebar (or any character that would not take a diacritic) after any of the above deadkeys to input what is shown on the key (punctuation and symbols).

The following works with iota and upsilon:


altgr-u*** diaeresis

***The two ALT keys on a Windows keyboard do not have the same value. The one on the right is distinguished by the name “altgr” and this is the key that is used as a modifier in GreekKeys keyboards

WHAT CANNOT BE ENTERED WITH THE DEADKEY METHOD ALONE

1. Alpha, iota, and upsilon with either breve or macron plus one or more additional diacritics, and epsilon and omicron with macron plus one or more diacritics: see Section 16 with instructions for advanced users. Or for maximum compatibility, enter these as PUA characters using one of the alternative methods discussed in Section 21 below.

2. Note these three combining additions that are entered AFTER the character.[2]


altgr-period sublinear dot [U+0323]
altgr-shift-\ stroke above a character [U+0305] (as for numbers or citation of a word)
altgr-i iota subscript (as decomposed element) [U+345]

Other Characters Accessible from the GKU Windows Keyboard

The following assignments apply to the US version of the keyboard. Many of them are the same for the various European keyboards, but please refer to the layouts in the folder GK2015 Keyboard Charts Windows for precise information.



altgr-a alpha with iota subscript [U+1FB3]
altgr-shift-a capital alpha with iota adscript [U+1FBC]
altgr-h eta with iota subscript [U+1FC3]
altgr-shift-h capital eta with iota adscript [U+1FCC]
altgr-v omega with iota subscript [U+1FF3]
altgr-shift-v capital omega with iota adscript [U+1FFC
w final sigma [U+03C2]
shift-w capital archaic sampi [U+03E0]
altgr-w digamma (vau) [U+03DD]
altgr-shift-w capital digamma (vau) [U+03DC]
altgr-s lunate sigma [U+03F2]
altgr-shift-s capital lunate sigma [U+03F9]
q archaic koppa [U+03D9]
shift-q capital archaic koppa [U+03D8]
altgr-q archaic san [U+03FB]
altgr-shift-q capital archaic san [U+03FA]
altgr-y archaic heta [U+0371]
altgr-shift-y capital archaic heta [U+0370]
altgr-e archaic sampi [U+03E1]
altgr-k stigma [U+03DB]
altgr-shift-k capital stigma [U+03DA]
altgr-z modern/numeric Greek koppa [U+03DF]
altgr-shift-z capital modern/mumeric Greek koppa [U+03DE]
altgr-c Greek numeral sign [U+0374]
altgr-shift-c Greek numeral sign (lower) [U+0375]
altgr-j yot [U+03F3]
altgr-shift-j capital yot [U+037F]
altgr-shift-d metrical longum (non-combining) [U+2012][3]
altgr-shift-f metrical breve (non-combining) [U+23D1]
altgr-shift-g metrical anceps [U+00D7]
altgr-l (letter) kai symbol [U+03D7]
altgr-; capital Kai abbreviation [U+03cf]
altgr-shift-l metrical period-end (double bar) [U+2016]
altgr-shift-e metrical catalexis (omission caret) [U+0020,U+0020,U+032D]
altgr-shift-r metrical caesura symbol (dotted vertical) [U+003A]
altgr-shift-t metrical inverted breve (brevis in longo) [U+2312]
< and > (shift-, and shift-.) left and right angle brackets [U+27E8-9]
altgr-t obelus [U+2020]
altgr-[ left guillemot [U+00AB]
altgr-] right guillemot [U+00BB]
altgr-shift-[ left double-bracket [U+27E6]
altgr-shift-] right double-bracket [U+27E7]
altgr-shift-n left lower half-bracket [U+230A]
altgr-shift-m right lower half-bracket [U+230B]
altgr-backslash emdash [U+2014]
altgr-slash endash [U+2013]
semicolon Greek question mark (English semicolon) [U+003B]
shift-semicolon Greek colon (single mid-line dot) [U+00B7)]
altgr-shift-semicolon Greek dicolon (English colon) [U+003A]
altgr-n left single curly quote [U+2018]
altgr-m straight apostrophe (straight single quote) [U+0027]
apostrophe (straight single quote) curved apostrophe (right single quote) [U+2019]
altgr-apostrophe left double curly quote [U+201C]
altgr-shift-apostrophe right double curly quote [U+201D]
altgr-b Greek beta symbol [U+03D0]
altgr-shift-comma less-than [mathematical symbol U+003C]
altgr-shift-period greater-than [mathematical symbol U+003E]

OTHER TOPICS

Please consult the GK2015UserGuide.pdf, sections 16-19, for details about the Windows Character Map, ALT-x input method of Unicode code points, Symbol Insertion mechanism, decomposed input, the two GKU Symbol keyboards, and other advanced topics.



[1] A fuller collection of metrical symbols is included in the GreekKeys Symbol input.

[2] Depending on the font used, these combinations may not appear well. The GreekKeys fonts have OpenType substitution instructions that make the combinations appear handsomely.

[3] A fuller collection of metrical symbols is included in the GKU metrical and papyrological symbols keyboard.

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