A fragment of Kallixeinos of Rhodes’ Peri Alexandreias (FGrH 627 F 1, ap. Ath., Deipn. 5.204d-206d) provides a lengthy description of the Thalamegos, the luxurious Nile barge of Ptolemy IV Philopator. Unlike the Tessarakonteres, Philopator’s giant warship, the Thalamegos was built for pleasure cruises, a purpose reflected in its lavish interior design. Distributed over its two decks were promenades, bed chambers, and several dining rooms, including one dining room decorated in an Egyptian style and another with columns of Indian stone. Additionally, the upper deck held a shrine to Aphrodite and a large “Dionysian” room capable of holding thirteen couches and furnished with an artificial cave that housed portrait statues of the royal family.
To the extent that the Thalamegos is discussed in modern scholarship, it mostly appears in treatments of ancient seafaring or of the luxuries enjoyed by Hellenistic kings (Caspari 1916, Casson 1995, Thompson 2013); the significance of its interior design remains largely unexplored. This paper argues that the luxury ship equipped with exotic banqueting rooms would have evoked the popular topos of the symposium at sea – and, moreover, that in casting its banqueters as sailors to far-flung lands, the Thalamegos exhibited a concern for geographic expansion and exploration that was central to Ptolemaic imperial ideology.
The metaphor of the symposium as a ship or a journey at sea appears as early as the archaic period, and for several centuries it permeated every aspect of the Greek banquet, from painted pottery to poetry to mosaic floor decoration. The metaphor could function in a variety of ways, referring sometimes to the physical and aesthetic experiences of the symposiasts, and at other times to the relationship between the sympotic group and the larger community (Slater 1976, Davies 1978, Daraki 1982, Corner 2010). As Franks has recently shown, it could also cast the symposiasts as voyagers to distant lands whose journeys resembled that of Dionysos as he traveled throughout the known world triumphantly spreading his cult (Franks 2014), and it is this last use of the metaphor that is most relevant to my reading of Philopator’s Thalamegos.
The royal practice of claiming descent from Dionysos had begun with Alexander, but the Ptolemies promoted the connection on an unprecedented scale (Rice 1983, Pàmias 2004, Goyette 2010, Strootman 2014a). The Ptolemaic claim to divine lineage would have justified the placement of the royal portrait statues in the Thalamegos’ Bacchic cave, but it also, I suggest, provides a template for understanding the assortment of banqueting rooms on Philopator’s ship. Even if the Thalamegos remained permanently docked at a harbor near Alexandria, the nautical framing placed banqueters firmly in the tradition of sympotic voyagers, and the ability to choose among Greek, Egyptian, Indian, or even Bacchic dining rooms likened their journey to that of the god himself.
Banqueting aboard a ship that allowed them to travel – albeit metaphorically – to the limits of the civilized world, guests on the Thalamegos performed their own version of Dionysos’ journeys throughout Greece and the East. In doing so, they enacted a crucial aspect of Ptolemaic ideology, which cast the kings as semidivine spreaders of civilization whose capital city – with its zoo, botanical gardens, Museion, and library – was itself a microcosm of the inhabited world (Casey 2006, Strootman 2014a, 2014b). A ship that brought the riches of the world on board while promising travel to exotic lands, the Thalamegos turned banqueters into participants in this imperial program of collection and expansion.