Trends in Teaching the Classics to Undergraduates

by Mary Pendergraft, Wake Forest University

This paper was delivered as part of "The Future of Classical Education: A Dialogue," a panel organized by the SCS Program Committee at the 147th annual meeting of the SCS in San Francisco, January 8, 2016.

The economic volatility of the last decade has taken a toll on education at every level; the humanities in general and language studies in particular have suffered far more than STEM subjects; and among languages, Greek and Latin, which offer no immediately profitable benefits, feel especially vulnerable. Many of us feel this concern instinctively and find that anecdotes from around the country reinforce our concerns. In addition, three national organizations have published large-scale reports that each offer a different snapshot on the state of undergraduate education.Wake Forest student Mary Somerville talks with her teammates to solve advanced grammar problems in a role-playing game, April 15, 2013. Photo: via flickr, © Wake Forest University

AAAS

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences has published two national departmental surveys of humanities departments in four-year institutions, in 2008 and 2013; only the second looked specifically at Classics departments. It tells us that

  • 276 institutions had departments of classics in 2012–13, with an average of 7 faculty members, for a total of 1,920 faculty members.
  • 4,770 juniors and seniors had a declared major in classics at the beginning of fall semester 2012, an average of 17 per department. The average number of majors was highest (32.1) for schools where the highest degree offered is the Master’s. The average number of majors in baccalaureate institutions was 13.6, and in doctorate-granting programs 23.7.
  • 2,240 Bachelor’s degrees in classics were awarded in 2012–13, an average of 8.1 per department.

For comparison, Philosophy departments were also first surveyed in 2012–13; they number 754, with a total of 7,830 faculty members. They average 27 junior and senior majors per department, and the greatest concentration is in research universities (18 majors per department); Baccalaureate and Master’s-degree institutions averaged 8 and 9 majors per department, respectively. 9,850 Philosophy Bachelor’s degrees were completed in that year, with an average of 13.1 per department.

SCS

Second, the SCS surveyed departments during Academic Year 2013–14; this study showed that approximately 190 majors graduated, a fact that suggests that the number of departments responding was smaller than the number in the AAAS survey. The average number of graduates per department in that year, however, was very close to the AAAS number: eight. There were somewhat more women than men, and on average fewer than two minority students, a disturbingly small number and an ongoing concern in every aspect of our discipline.

MLA

Both of these studies are interesting, but it is the annual survey of enrollments by the Modern Language Association where we find the most longitudinal data, stretching back to 1958. Their periodic surveys of language enrollments first included Latin and Greek in 1968; surveys of the twenty-first century, in 2002, 2006, 2009, 2013, show that Latin enrollments reached a high of 32,444, reported in 2009, and fell to a low of 27,000 in 2013. The latter number is comparable to the numbers for each survey in the 1990s. Greek, on the other hand, had the highest enrollments during the years surveyed—22,800—in 2006, only to plummet to fewer than 13,000 in 2013.

The SCS survey includes numbers for various courses in classical studies; there is no long term data for comparison, but the enrollments seem relatively healthy—something that my own observation supports. It seems that, while we can’t be complacent about Latin or Classics enrollments, it is Greek where we have good reason for concern.    

Pedagogy

With that background, I’d like to look at ways that course offerings and pedagogical approaches have undergone changes in the last decade or so, and I’ll tackle course offerings first. The SCS census asks about Ancient Art & Archaeology, Ancient History, Ancient Philosophy, Classical Civilization, Literature in Translation, Mythology, and Etymology—all titles, at least, that are familiar since my own undergraduate days. Two newer areas of focus appear as well, the Classical Tradition and Gender & Sexuality Studies. Where twenty years ago, for instance, a forward-thinking department would offer “Women in the Ancient World,” focusing on texts and inscriptions, say, today such a course reflects a theoretical sophistication that we would also find in a department of Gender and Sexuality. Similarly, as Classical Reception has emerged as a field of study, at the same time Classics courses that look at the afterlife of ancient models become more sophisticated as well.

Under even familiar headings, too, it’s very likely that the emphases and pedagogical strategies are new ones, and the same is true in language courses. I will simply call attention to some examples. Perhaps a dozen or more programs use Latin as the language of instruction—in whole or in part.1 And summer opportunities for practicing the active use of Latin are flourishing (see below for a list of Conventicula). Comparable programs for Greek are emerging more slowly.

Distance learning opportunities make it possible for programs to address larger audiences and in turn draw on a larger pool of offerings for their students: Synoikisis, a national consortium of Classics programs, is one very successful example.

Role-playing and gaming as instructional strategies can assume a variety of forms; in 2015 the SCS meeting included a panel of instructors who employ an array of such techniques. The Reacting to the Past project consists of elaborate games, set in the past, in which students are assigned roles informed by classic texts in the history of ideas. Classicists have been involved in this project almost since its inception.

Challenges for Greek

The importance of new teaching strategies, especially for Greek, was a lively topic on the Classics list earlier in January, prompted by James Romm’s article in last Sunday’s NY Times: “Beginning Greek, Again and Again.” His reflections on the inevitable frustrations that attend the joy of teaching Greek struck a nerve with many of us. At the same time, all the numbers we looked at above tell us that we need desperately to address declining Greek enrollments. Two themes emerge in discussions of that decline. One arose in that recent online conversation: the need to improve pedagogy in Greek. While examples of the innovative practices more widely adopted among our high school colleagues appear in some college Latin programs—the use of Latin in instruction, for instance—they are far less frequent in Greek. A strategy cited for its potential benefit is the use Comprehensible Input, that is, providing students with readings that are readily intelligible in order to increase their fluency. Again, far more materials are available for Latin than for Greek.

A second challenge facing Greek teachers has been raised by Willy Major of the Committee for the Promotion of Greek, and is echoed by others: As student demographics change, the study of Greek once again—still?—is perceived as a bastion of privilege removed from and absolutely unrelated to current concerns, and this perception persists to an extent that is not the case with Latin. This fact argues not only for new teaching but also for new entry points, perhaps, into its study. Students of engineering can be introduced to Archimedes, for instances; students whose tradition focuses on the Ottoman Empire need to know who founded Byzantium.

As an example of the kinds of changes that are taking place in teaching strategies and in content, I’ll take my own department at Wake Forest, the one I know best. From 1988 to 2008, there were four of us, good teachers all, but not, in general, engaged in pedagogical innovation. Since then three retirements have made us a department of teachers from a generation who have been engaged in questions of pedagogy in ways my age mates and I never were. My colleague Michael Sloan, for instance, is developing a repository of online Latin drills that can provide the out-of-class backbone for one kind of flipped class, where class time focuses on reading at sight.

My colleague Ted Gellar-Goad turned a required course for Latin majors—Advanced Grammar and Composition—into an elaborate role-playing game. His First Year Seminar combines two Reacting to the Past games, one set in Athens in 403 and the other in Rome immediately after Caesar’s assassination. John Oksanish developed an FYS called “Ancient STEM Societies.” Selena Witzke is designing digital portfolios for her course on women in the ancient world.

One of our most ambitious initiatives is still in the planning stage. Like many institutions, we see a growing number of students who are exempted from the language requirement for reasons of ability; large numbers of them are student athletes, first generation college students, and new Americans. In the case of some students, their disabilities are insurmountable, but perhaps that is not true for all of them. We hope to pilot an alternative Greek sequence that will be open only by recommendation from the dean’s office or the learning center and that will teach not only the Greek language but study skills, linguistic awareness, and more. At the same time, we hope that these students will gain confidence in their ability as learners. We’re very excited.

Conventicula:

Dickinson College

Paideia Institute

Polis: The Jerusalem Institute for Languages and Humanities

SALVI

University of Kentucky

University of Massachusetts-Boston

Wyoming Catholic College

Photo: Wake Forest student Mary Somerville talks with her teammates to solve advanced grammar problems in a role-playing game, April 15, 2013. Photo: via flickr, © Wake Forest University 


1. University of Kentucky; Davidson College; Ave Maria University; Washington University St. Louis; University of Houston; Christendom College; New Saint Andrews College; University of Massachusetts at Boston; Temple University; Western Washington University; Wyoming Catholic College; Cornell College.

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Eta Sigma Phi students, Callie Todhunter, Noah Andrys, and Myles Young, staff the Homerathon booth at the University of Iowa

For a number of years, our local Eta Sigma Phi chapter has been organizing public readings of the sorts of things classicists cut their teeth on – or at least feel like we do: Homer’s epics, Vergil, Ovid. These have always been a wonderful experience for our department – everyone involved loves the opportunity to read and hear these works as they were meant. We decided that this year we wanted to reach a different and larger audience than before, inspired by the outreach of, among others, Bob Cargill and the University of Nebraska's Homerathon tradition (which the SCS Blog covered last year). Literature and art flourish in Iowa City, a UNESCO City of Literature, which is also the home of the Iowa Writers’ Workshop and many artists. Why not ask them, as well as people in our community, to join us? One of our guiding principles was that Homer belongs to everyone, not just classicists.

View full article. | Posted in on Thu, 04/18/2019 - 10:56pm by .

"Writing Ancient and Medieval Same-Sex Desire: Goals, Methods, Challenges"
June 30-July 2, 2020
Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

https://cms.victoria.ac.nz/slc/about/events/writing-ancient-and-medieval-same-sex-desire-goals,-methods,-challenges

This call for papers is for a conference to take place June 30-July 2, 2020 at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, on the topic of writing about same-sex desire in ancient and medieval societies.

View full article. | Posted in Calls for Papers on Wed, 04/17/2019 - 9:03am by Erik Shell.

Reframing Wisdom Literature. Problematising Literary and Religious Interactions in Ancient Wisdom Texts

King's College London, 30-31 May 2019

Confirmed keynote speaker: Prof Dimitri Gutas, Yale University

Registration is now open for the postgraduate conference "Reframing Wisdom Literature. Problematising Literary and Religious Interactions in Ancient Wisdom Texts." The programme is included below and you can read more about our aims and about the line up here: https://hcommons.org/app/uploads/sites/1001234/2019/04/RWL-booklet.pdf

View full article. | Posted in Conferences, Lectures, and Meetings on Tue, 04/16/2019 - 9:34am by Erik Shell.

Please note that the deadline for submission of individual abstracts for paper and poster presentations and of short abstracts for lightning talks is 11.59pm EDT, Monday April 15.

You can submit your abstract via our online Program Submission System  

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View full article. | Posted in SCS Announcements on Mon, 04/15/2019 - 8:37am by Erik Shell.

'Addressing the Divide' is a new column that looks at the ways in which the modern field of Classics was constructed and then explores ways to identify, modify, or simply abolish the lines between fields in order to embrace broader ideas of what Classics was, is, and could be. This month, Sarah Bond discusses the partition between Biblical Studies and the field of Classics.

View full article. | Posted in on Sat, 04/13/2019 - 6:56am by Sarah Bond.

The index and all the published volumes of the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae (A–M, O–P, and Onomasticon C–D) are now available as open access pdfs from the Bavarian Academy:

http://www.thesaurus.badw.de/tll-digital/tll-open-access.html

Please note that the pdfs may currently be slow to load.


Picture: "Library of the Thesaurus linguae latinae" by N. P. Holmes, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

 
 

View full article. | Posted in Websites and Resources on Fri, 04/12/2019 - 11:29am by Helen Cullyer.
POWER AND KNOWLEDGE
in Plato and the Platonic Tradition
22-24 May, Uppsala (Sweden)

Registration is now open for the international symposium ‘Power & Knowledge in Plato and the Platonic Tradition', which will take place at the department of philosophy at Uppsala University on the 22nd-24th of May 2019. The program is included below. For more information about the symposium and what we hope to achieve, see: http://rationalselfgovernment.se/power-and-knowledge/.

View full article. | Posted in Conferences, Lectures, and Meetings on Thu, 04/11/2019 - 12:10pm by Erik Shell.

DEADLINE for abstracts: 1 June 2019

Invention has fascinated audiences at least since the god Hephaestus created self-locomoting robot-women as workshop assistants—and Prometheus’ theft of fire allowed humans to develop their own technology. From Méliès’ re-creation of Lucian’s trip to the moon, to myriad takes on Pygmalion fabricating the “perfect woman,” to Hypatia’s fatal scientific inquiry in Amenábar’s Agora, on-screen depictions of invention and technology in the ancient Mediterranean world and the classical tradition have dramatized their potential to delight, empower, and enlighten—as well as the ethical and moral concerns they stimulate.

View full article. | Posted in Calls for Papers on Thu, 04/11/2019 - 10:46am by Erik Shell.

Those who will submit Individual Abstracts for the 2020 Annual Meeting in Washington D.C. should sign up for their SCS memberships by this Friday, April 11th, as memberships take a couple days to process and all submissions must come from SCS Members.

You can renew or sign up for SCS membership here: https://scs.press.jhu.edu/membership/join

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(Photo: "_DSC7061" by rhodesj, licensed under CC BY 2.0)

View full article. | Posted in SCS Announcements on Thu, 04/11/2019 - 10:28am by Erik Shell.

We would like to remind SCS members who are considering submitting for the 2020 Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C., that the Lightning Talk format - launched this year at our Sesquicentennial - is returning for 2020 as well.

Members who have a topic about which they are passionate and can speak succinctly are encouraged to apply.

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(Photo: "_DSC7061" by rhodesj, licensed under CC BY 2.0)

View full article. | Posted in SCS Announcements on Wed, 04/10/2019 - 2:41pm by Erik Shell.

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